TIMING
Definition
Timing is the ability to execute a skill/movement at exactly the right time and with the right degree of emphasis.
Impact on Performance
Timing of executing a skill / movement is often dictated by external influences. For example, in dance the timing of movements should be in time with the beat/tempo of the music. In football, you may need to time when to play a pass depending on when your team-mate makes their run. When serving in tennis, you need to time when to swing the racket at the ball and transfer your weight to ensure that you make good contact and increase the power behind the ball.

RHYTHM

Definition
Rhythm is the expression of timing during the performance of a skill/movement.

Impact on Performance
Rhythm is related to how we coordinate our body during the performance of a skill/movement. For example, in athletics when completing a hurdling distance, the athlete must maintain a rhythmic speed to ensure they can coordinate the correct take off foot, number of steps between hurdles and stride length to complete it in the fastest time. In dance, variation in rhythm can put emphasis on different movements and beats to make it more aesthetically pleasing for the audience.


CONSISTENCY
Definition
Consistency is the ability to perform skills / movements correctly over and over again.
Impact on Performance
Accuracy and Consistency are key for an effective performance. For example, a setter in volleyball always being able to set the ball at an appropriate height and place for their team mate to perform a more powerful spike and therefore put the other team under more pressure.
In tennis it is important to consistently serve with power and accuracy. If your serve is inconsistent you have more chance of double faulting or your opponent may find it easier to return the ball with an attacking shot.
To be consistent you must be at the automatic stage of learning. This means that you do not have to think of how to perform the skill as it becomes instinct/natural to use the skill in the correct situation.

IMAGINATION
Definition
Imagination is when you are creative with your skill set during activities.
Impact on Performance
Imagination is required when performing in subjective activities. These are activities which are based on how the performance looks. They can also be described as aesthetic activities and the result depends on the opinion of the judges. Some examples of subjective activities are Gymnastics, Dancing, Diving, and Synchronised swimming. Performers can also be required to use their imagination and be creative in objective activities. Objective activities are where the performers achieve a definite score that can be measured in some way. For example, you may need to use your imagination to outwit your opponent in a 1 v 1 situation in basketball, hockey, rugby or football by changing direction quickly or using an unpredictable skill. Using your imagination is closely linked to being creative and performing with flair.

CREATIVITY
Definition
Creativity is the ability to perform unusually, innovatively and uniquely. It can be described as being able to face a problem and create a solution that is not expected or is different from the normal. Being creative can be shown in different ways, such as tactically or through a series of skills in the activity.
Impact on Performance
Some athletes are naturally gifted with skill and ideas and are willing to try different things in their sport which are seen to be creative. Others need to gradually learn and practice “alternative” skills in order to be more confident with them in a challenging situation. For example, in basketball when dribbling down the court at speed with support team-mates on either side you could disguise the pass by look to your team-mate on your left and passing to your team-mate on your right as you approach a defender.


FLAIR
Definition
Flair is the ability to instinctively perform uniquely or with style.
Impact on Performance
Having good flair can allow you to deceive an opponent as the skill you execute will be unexpected. No flair may result in your performance becoming predictable making it easy for an opponent to be able to read what you are about to do before you execute the skill. For example, a lack of flair and disguise in your play may lead to an opponent anticipating and intercepting a pass to a team-mate in basketball, football, hockey or rugby.


ADJUSTMENT
Definition
Adjustment is the ability to alter, change or move your body/body parts slightly in order to be in the desired position to perform a skill/action more effectively.
Impact on Performance
For example, in hockey, you might quickly alter your feet position and rotate your body to control/stop a ball with the front stick as opposed to attempting a reverse stick stop. You might also be more competent in performing the front stop and therefore more likely to keep possession/control of the ball. This would allow you to play a stronger front stick pass/shot more quickly. In table tennis, you might adjust/alter your footwork to allow you to play a forehand shot as opposed to using a ‘weaker’ backhand shot. This could benefit your performance as it could allow you to play a more attacking forehand drive shot and put your opponent under pressure.


CONTROL (very similar to Touch)
Definition
The ability to manage yourself or a moving object. E.G. Ball/racquet/stick etc.
Impact on Performance
In sport there are two types of object control.Propulsive – sending an object away (e.g. throwing, kicking, striking, batting)Receptive – receiving an object (e.g. catching, dribbling a ball, receiving a shuttlecockPropulsive skills are easier because you are in control of the object that you send away. In contrast, receptive skills require perceptual and coordination skills to move one’s body into position to receive the oncoming object.You must also have control of your body, this is important in all sports where balance is important and to have a strong base from which to execute skills from. It is especially important in Gymnastics where control is a key element of performance.
Having a high level of control will allow you to execute both simple and complex skills to a high level. This will in turn allow your performances to look more fluent and will allow you to develop a good repertoire of skills. Any model performer in an activity will display a high level of both object and body control.Having a low level of control will have a major impact on performance as you are unlikely to be able to perform skills to a high level. Your performance will not look fluent as you will lack the necessary control. Novice performers will have a lack of control in their performance.

FLUENCY
Definition
Fluency is regarded as the smoothness or flow in which actions/movements are joined together to perform one skill or multiple skills together with ease and grace.
Impact on Performance
A badminton player needs to link the subroutines of the overhead clear together in order to complete the action efficiently and smoothly (fluently) – being able to track back underneath the shuttle, turn side on, transfer weight, swing arm quickly to hit the shuttle and return to base. Performing actions with fluency will make them appear automatic and natural.
A team performance may also relate to being ‘fluent’ in their style of play- the ability to link passes, dribble at speed and move off the ball in an efficient, flowing movement. Progressing with ease and grace from one end of the pitch/court to the other.


EFFORT
Definition
The amount of work you are putting into the performance in order to be successful.


Impact on Performance
In basketball, applying effort in passing during a performance can ensure that the timing, weight and accuracy of the pass are successful. Lack of effort may lead to a mistimed pass, the pass falling short of the target, or not being on the correct trajectory to the receiver. When training for an activity, effort is required to ensure that you are working at the correct levels to bring about improvement. Lack of effort can lead to skill level plateau where no improvements are made.


ACCURACY
Definition
Accuracy is the ability to direct a ball, shuttle or any other object used in an activity to a target area with precision. A performer can also demonstrate accuracy performing movements with precision so that they look exactly like a model performance.
Impact on Performance
For example, you could demonstrate accuracy in badminton through returning an overhead clear to the back tramlines on your opponent’s side of the court or by placing a penalty flick in hockey accurately to the corner of the goal away from the goalkeeper. A dancer may also demonstrate accuracy by performing a sequence of dance steps in an exact order with precision and correct technique.


TOUCH (very similar to Control)
Definition
Is a person’s ability or dexterity when making contact with a stationary or moving object; predominantly using a piece of equipment or part of the body. Touch refers to a performer’s ability to control an object during an activity.
Impact on Performance
Touch is essential to performance in several activities where control and possession of an object is required. A drop shot in badminton requires a soft touch in order to place the shuttle over the net with the right amount of speed and height. This will result in your opponent being unable to return the shuttle or having to return with a high defensive shot. This will ultimately lead to you winning the point or playing a smash/attacking shot next. Having a poor touch can lead to loss of control or a misplaced pass. In volleyball, ‘touch’ is important when setting the ball to a teammate. If you do not touch the ball with the correct height or accuracy it can lead to your teammate hitting the net with their shot or being unable to play an attacking shot. This can result in the loss of points or have an effect on the timing and accuracy in the next shot. In football, a good first touch will ensure you keep possession of the ball and help you to be able to perform your next skill. Think about receiving a strong pass inside the penalty box in football. If you have a good touch and are able to control the ball from under your feet quickly then you will have more time to have an effective strike at goal. A poor touch could result in lack of control, a missed opportunity for a shot at goal or losing possession.